From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Swami Harshananda

Trivṛtkaraṇa literally means ‘the process of triplication’.

The Chāndogya Upaniṣad[1] mentions that Brahman[2] created three fundamental elements out of himself. They are:

  1. Tejas - fire
  2. Āpa - water
  3. Anna - earth

These three are the pure elements imperceptible to the senses. Brahman then created the gross elements out of these, by the process of trivṛtkaraṇa or triplication. In this, half of one subtle or sukṣma element is combined with one-fourth of the other two, resulting in the gross[3] element as follows:

Tejas(Subtle) \ + (subtle) āpa ^ + (subtle) anna | = gross or sthula tejas

This is technically called trivṛtkaraṇa. The process is similar to that of pañcikaraṇa.


  1. Chāndogya Upaniṣad 6.2.3,4; 6.3.3
  2. He is inferred as ‘Sat’ here.
  3. It means sthula.
  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore