Colonial Discourse and the Suffering of Indian American Children Book Cover.webp

In this book, we analyze the psycho-social consequences faced by Indian American children after exposure to the school textbook discourse on Hinduism and ancient India. We demonstrate that there is an intimate connection—an almost exact correspondence—between James Mill’s colonial-racist discourse (Mill was the head of the British East India Company) and the current school textbook discourse. This racist discourse, camouflaged under the cover of political correctness, produces the same psychological impacts on Indian American children that racism typically causes: shame, inferiority, embarrassment, identity confusion, assimilation, and a phenomenon akin to racelessness, where children dissociate from the traditions and culture of their ancestors.

This book is the result of four years of rigorous research and academic peer-review, reflecting our ongoing commitment at Hindupedia to challenge the representation of Hindu Dharma within academia.

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From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

Pallikondeswarar Swamy Surutapalli Temple[edit]

This time is is located in Andhra Pradesh state and is ~2 kms from Uthukottai in the Chennai-Periyapalayam-Tirupati road. Pradosha is celebrated with great shradha, popularity and vigour here and as per beliefs, it was here where practice of celebrating Pradosha Kalam started in origin.

This Shiva temple is quite unique here to that, usually Lord Shiva is seen only in the form of a Linga but here He is seen in human form and that too in the reclining pose on the lap of Goddess Parvathi like Vishnu Ananthasayana. This place is also sacred with stones carrying foot marks of Lava & Kusa being traced to period of Ramayana. Dakshinamoorthy is considered very powerful and popular to offer prayers here. Goddess Parvathi is called Marahathambikai and is very beautiful along the side of Valmikiswarar Syambhu Lingam. Kanchipuram Sankara Paramacharya is considered to have spent lot of time here meditating and he is the person who traced this place to Ramayana period findings.

Location Of Temple[edit]

Suruttapalli village is approx. 60 from Chennai in the Thirupathi (Balaji) route via Uthukottai. One can get into the Chennai - Kolkatta Grand North Trunk (GNT) Road first which can be reached either by Guindy-Koyampedu-Padi-Redihills route or Parry-Basinbridge-Perambur-Madavaram-Redhills route. At GNT Road you will come across the Karanodai bridge and immediately after, the Toll Plaza the road to the left here goes to Periyapalayam, Uthukottai, Nagalapuram and Thirupathi. Take this road to Periyapalayam and at Periyapalayam take the left side road that goes through a bridge to Uthukottai (famous from Devi). From Uthukottai, the temple is just 2 kms away and is on the main road itself. Practically it is at the end of the Uthukottai town which is the border between Tamilnadu and Andhra. The temple is in Andhra state.

Purana Legend[edit]

Once Devaraj Indra, the King of Gods, while riding on his white elephant Iravatha came across Sage Durvasa who offered him a special garland. Indra accepted the garland but without giving much importance he gave it to his elephant. Iravatha was irritated by the smell of the flowers in the garland and therefore threw the garland on the floor and stamped on it. This act enraged sage Durvasa as he got the garland from “Sridevi” as prasada. Immediately Durvasa cursed Indra and all devas to be bereft of all strength, energy, and fortune.

Due to this curse, in the battles that followed Devas were defeated and Asuras led by Mahabali chakravarthy, gained control of the universe. Devas sought help from Lord Vishnu who advised them to take the path of diplomacy with Asuras and the only way to regain lost glory was to drink Amrutham/nectar. Devas came to an agreement with asuras to jointly churn the ocean for the nectar of immortality and to share it among them. However, Lord Vishu told Devas that he would ensure Amrutha (Nectar) does not get to Asuras.

During the Samudra Mathan (churning) of the Ocean of Milk Mount Mandaranchal was used as the dasher (churning tool), and Vasuki, the king of serpents, became the churning rope. The gods held the tail of the snake, while the demons (Asuras) held its head, and they pulled on it alternately causing the mountain to rotate, which in turn churned the ocean. However, once the mountain was placed on the ocean, it began to sink. With request from both Devas and Asuras Lord Vishnu took the form of a turtle (Kurma avatara), came to their rescue and supported the mountain on his back.

Poison was the first to come when churning started and this terrified the Devas and Asuras because, the poison was so toxic that it might have destroyed all of creation. On the advice of Vishnu, both Devas and Asuras approached Shiva for help and protection. Out of compassion for living beings, Shiva drank the poison. It was so potent that it changed the color of Shiva's neck to blue and therefore he is also called Neelakantha (the blue-necked one, nīla = "blue", kantha = "throat"). Parvati immediately realized the deeds of Shiva and put her hand to stop the Kalakutta poison from entering Lord Shiva’s body. Lord Shiva felt very dizzy and lied down with his head on Parvathi’s lap and the whole world went dark. [SURUTAPALLI TEMPLE IN ANDHRA PRADESH] JUST ACROSS TAMIL NADU BORDER BUILT BY HARI HARA BUKKARAYA DEPICTS THIS AND IS THE ONLY PLACE IN THE WORLD WHERE LORD SHIVA IS IN THE FORM OF SAYANAM (NORMALLY VISHNU'S FORM IN TEMPLES). As soon as the effect of poison diminished and Lord Shiva came back to normalcy all Devas and Asuras wanted to have his Darshan. When they approach Nandi (Sacred Bull) for permission to see Lord Shiva, Nandi refused and asked them to pray and wait since, Lord Shiva and Parvati were together. With prayers from devas and asuras, Lord Shiva gave them Darshan doing Ananda Thandavam on top of the forehead of Rishaba Vahana.

Pradosha Mahima Importance[edit]

Pradosha Kalam is the period of time during which Lord Shiva is known to have evolved out of the dizzy state (due to poison he had consumed) and performing Ananda Thandava on top of his Rishabha Vahana (Sacred Nandi Bull). During this pradosha time, Lord Shiva is expected to be in the most happiest of moods as he has been successful in saving the mankind of the ill effects of the Poison. He therefore performing Ananda Thandava blesses all the three world Thevathas as they pray to him.

Lord Shiva is known to be very generous with respect to giving away boon (Vardhan although, he would test his devotees to the core) praying him during Pradosha Kalam observing fast, performing puja, chanting of Rudram, visiting sacred places of interest is bound to bring prosperity and happiness in life.

Pradosha Kalam falls on the 13th lunar day of Trayodashee during the shukla and krishna pakshas, waxing and waning fortnights in the Hindu calendar months. If, from sunset to next sunrise is divided into 5 equal parts, the first part is called Pradosha Kalam and it denotes the end of day time and the beginning of night. This is also called the period of Asuras (Raaksha Neram). It is believed that each day of the week has different benefits during Pradosh time:

Sunday(Bhaanu Vaara Pradosha): Goodness To All (Mangalam to all) Monday(Indu Vaara Pradosha): Positive (perception) thinking Tuesday (Bhauma Vaara Pradosha): No Poverty (Prosperity to all) Wednesday(Saumya Vaara Pradosha): Blessing of child, Knowledge and education Thursday(Guru Vaara Pradosha): Divine blessings through the Pitru's, all dangers will be eliminated Friday(Bhrgu Vaara Pradosha): Nullifying (negativeness) opposition Saturday(Sthira Vaara Pradosha): Elevation (promotion) get back the lost wealth

Mahaa Pradosh Kalam comes yearly during the month of Maagh/Maashi (U’ma’ +’Shi’Va) before Mahaa Shiv Raatri. If the Mahaa Pradosha comes on Saturday, it is called Shani MahaA Pradosha. Saturday is the day when Lord Shiva swallowed poison and this is called Shani (Sthira in Samskritam) Pradosha. It is categorized into three categories of importance depending upon the month on which Pradosha falls:

(1) Uttama Sthira Pradosha - Maximum power - The Sthira Pradosha that comes during the months of Chaitra, Vaishaakh, Aashaadh and Kaartik during the Growing Lunar Cycle (Shukla Paksha), i.e from New to Full moon period.

(2) Madhyama Sthira Pradosha - Normal power - The Sthira Pradosha that comes during the months of Chaitra, Vaishaakh, Aashaadh and Kaartik during Diminishing Lunar Cycle (Krishn Paksha), ie Full to New moon period.

(3) Adhama Sthira Pradosha - Minimum power - All the other Sthira Pradosha. The Pradosh that falls on any Saturday is called MahaA Pradosha (Sthira Pradosh).


During Pradosha Kala Lord Shiva is supposed to be very powerful yet happy. Unlike normal days/times during Pradosha kalam, a special type of circumambulation called Soma-sUtra-pradaxiNam is practiced in Shiva temples. The importance of Soma-sUtra-pradaxiNam is that the gomukhi (place where the water after anointing - abhiSheka tIrtam- would be flowing northwards out) is never crossed during circumambulation of the Lord. By doing this way of pradaxiNam one does not step over this holy water. The following order of Circumambulation is practiced for a single turn:

1)RiShabham-ChaNdIchar-RiShabham-Gomukhi 2)RiShabham-ChaNdIchar-Gomukhi 3)RiShabham-ChaNdIchar-RiShabham- RiShabham