Colonial Discourse and the Suffering of Indian American Children Book Cover.webp

In this book, we analyze the psycho-social consequences faced by Indian American children after exposure to the school textbook discourse on Hinduism and ancient India. We demonstrate that there is an intimate connection—an almost exact correspondence—between James Mill’s colonial-racist discourse (Mill was the head of the British East India Company) and the current school textbook discourse. This racist discourse, camouflaged under the cover of political correctness, produces the same psychological impacts on Indian American children that racism typically causes: shame, inferiority, embarrassment, identity confusion, assimilation, and a phenomenon akin to racelessness, where children dissociate from the traditions and culture of their ancestors.

This book is the result of four years of rigorous research and academic peer-review, reflecting our ongoing commitment at Hindupedia to challenge the representation of Hindu Dharma within academia.


From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Swami Harshananda

General Alliance of Varuṇa[edit]

Varuṇa ‘the one who encompasses the whole world,’ is one of the oldest Vedic deities. He is believed to be the personification of the sky and clouds. He is also associated with water, rivers and ocean. He is sometimes clubbed with Mitra and praised as Mitrāvaruṇa.

Family and descendants[edit]

The Rig Veda mentions him as one of the 12 Adityas, and so his mother was Aditi and father was Kashyapa.

His wife is named Varuni.

The rivers in general are said to be his wives. One such river is called Puniasa (Parnasa) who is the mother of Varuna's son Srutayudha.

He also, according to the Mahabharata, has a son named Pushkara, who married Soma's daughter Jyotsnakali.

His children according to the Ramayana were Harita and Bhrgu. According to the Bhagavata Purana 3.24 he will be the father of the 9th Manu.

According to some Puranas, Jalandhara was his son, who was given birth to by Ganga.

Living quarters[edit]

His major cities are known as Mukhya, Nimlochani, Sukha, and Vibhavari.

His region of residence within Rasātala-loka is known as Asuranam Bandhanam.

Alternative names[edit]

He is also known as Ambupa, Appati, Pashi, Prachetas, Nadipati, Sarimapati, Toyesa, and Yadasampati.

Because he is the God Almighty in Zoroastrianism, he has 99 names, the most prominent of which is Ahura Mazda.

Significance of Varuṇa[edit]

Varuṇa is the king of the universe and lives in the highest world. His knowledge and power are unlimited. He has thousand eyes and oversees the whole world. Hence he is the lord of the moral law. He punishes those who transgress this law but forgives them out of compassion if they repent and pray. By activating Vāyu, the lord of the wind, he sustains life by giving rain and crops.


Mythological Significance of Varuṇa[edit]

Though Varuṇa was the chief deity in the beginning, he seems to have yielded his place later on to Indra and Prajāpati. In the subsequent mythological literature, Varuṇa is described as the presiding deity of the western quarter and as the lord of oceans, water and aquatic animals.

Picturesque of Varuṇa Deity[edit]

In some of the temples, he is depicted as riding on a crocodile. In two of his four arms he holds the serpent and the noose.[1] Sometimes he is even pictured as riding a chariot drawn by seven swans and holding the lotus, the noose, the conch and a vessel of gems in the four hands. There is an umbrella over his head.

Related articles[edit]


  1. Noose means pāśa.
  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore