From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Swami Harshananda

Vijātiyabheda literally means ‘differences based on different species’.

Classification of Bheda[edit]

Bheda or difference is one of the concepts discussed in the Vedāntic treatises to establish the nature of the ultimate realities. It is generally classified into three varieties:

  1. Sajātīyabheda - Among number of cows, one cow is different from another cow. This is an example of sajātiyabheda or difference within the same category.
  2. Vijātīyabheda - A cow and a horse are different from one another because they belong to different jātis or categories. This is an example of vijātīyabheda.
  3. Svagatabheda - Within the body of a cow, the horns, the legs, the tail and the ears are all different from one another. This is the example for svagatabheda or internal differences.

Bheda as per Viśiṣṭādvaita Vedānta[edit]

The Viśiṣṭādvaita Vedānta of Rāmānuja[1] does not accept the first two kinds of bhedas in Brahman but accepts the third. According to this, the jīvas[2] and the prakṛti[3] which is also called as cit[4] and acit[5] are the internal parts of īśvara or Brahman.


  1. He lived in A. D. 1017-1137.
  2. Jīvas means the individual souls which are infinite in number.
  3. Prakṛti means the insentient nature.
  4. Cit means conscious entity.
  5. Acit means unconscious matter.
  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore

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