Sri Ram Janam Bhoomi Prana Pratishta competition logo.jpg

Sri Ram Janam Bhoomi Prana Pratisha Article Competition winners

Rāmāyaṇa where ideology and arts meet narrative and historical context by Prof. Nalini Rao

Rāmāyaṇa tradition in northeast Bhārat by Virag Pachpore


From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Swami Harshananda

The Upaniṣads are normally divided into two groups:

  1. The major
  2. The minor

Out of the 120 or 125 Upaniṣads available in print, the well-known ten Upaniṣads from the īśāvasyopaniṣad up to the Brhadāranyakopaniṣad are considered the major ones and the rest as minor. Among the latter, 20 Upaniṣads are classed as the Yoga Upaniṣads since their subject matter is mainly centered round yoga.[1]

The Yogatattvopaniṣad belongs to this group. It is assigned to the Kṛṣṇa Yajurveda and has 142 verses without any internal divisions as chapters. The following is a brief synoptic summary of its contents:

  • Some general principles of Advaita Vedānta
  • The four yogas:
  1. Rājayoga
  2. Mantrayoga
  3. Haṭhayoga
  4. Layayoga
  • The eight steps of yoga
  • Detailed treatment of prāṇāyāma
  • Few bandhas
  • Meditation on Saguṇa and Nirguṇa aspects of Brahman
  • Some mudrās like khecarī
  • Meditation on the Praṇava in the lotus of the heart


  1. The two types of yoga are Rājayoga and Haṭhayoga.
  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore