Colonial Discourse and the Suffering of Indian American Children Book Cover.webp

In this book, we analyze the psycho-social consequences faced by Indian American children after exposure to the school textbook discourse on Hinduism and ancient India. We demonstrate that there is an intimate connection—an almost exact correspondence—between James Mill’s colonial-racist discourse (Mill was the head of the British East India Company) and the current school textbook discourse. This racist discourse, camouflaged under the cover of political correctness, produces the same psychological impacts on Indian American children that racism typically causes: shame, inferiority, embarrassment, identity confusion, assimilation, and a phenomenon akin to racelessness, where children dissociate from the traditions and culture of their ancestors.

This book is the result of four years of rigorous research and academic peer-review, reflecting our ongoing commitment at Hindupedia to challenge the representation of Hindu Dharma within academia.


From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia
(Redirected from Aparajita)

By Swami Harshananda

  1. undefeated; impossible to overcome.
  2. another name for Durgā; the creeping plant flower butterfly pea, vişņukrāntā or gokarņa (Clitoria ternatea); (mas: aparājita):
  3. one fo the eleven rudras (Ŗ. Veda); a nāgā son of Kaśyapa and Kadru (M. Bh.); a class of Jaina divinities (J.S. Koşa).

Man casts God in his own mould. He cannot help doing it since it comes to him naturally. Again, if God is given a human form and conceived of as the Father, why not as the Mother? This seems to be the psychology behind the cult of the Śakti or the Devī, the Divine Mother.

Most of the forms of Śakti are associated with Pārvatī, the divine spouse of Lord Śiva. Aparājitā (literally, one who is unconquered and unconquerable) is one such aspect. Works on iconography describe her as a very strong woman with three eyes, with her hair made up as a crown and adorned with the crescent moon, and with four arms holding pināka (Siva’s bow), arrow, sword and shield. The snake Vāsuki forms her wristlet. She rides a lion.

The Devimāhātmya, which forms a part of the Mārkandeya Purāna, contains a beautiful hymn titled ‘Aparājitā-stotra[1] sung by the gods led by Indra, to appease her so that she condescends to kill the demons Śumbha and Niśumbha. Kings were expected to worship her on the Vijayadaśami day. They would then be assured of victory in battles.

The deity is known to mythology also wherein she is pictured as a yakṣī (demi-goddess).

The seventh day in the bright fortnight of Bhādra (usually September) is observed as Aparājitā Saptamī vrata, fasting being an important part of the discipline.


  1. Aparājitā-stotra 5.8-82
  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore
  • Aparājitā by Jit Majumdar

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