Colonial Discourse and the Suffering of Indian American Children Book Cover.webp

In this book, we analyze the psycho-social consequences faced by Indian American children after exposure to the school textbook discourse on Hinduism and ancient India. We demonstrate that there is an intimate connection—an almost exact correspondence—between James Mill’s colonial-racist discourse (Mill was the head of the British East India Company) and the current school textbook discourse. This racist discourse, camouflaged under the cover of political correctness, produces the same psychological impacts on Indian American children that racism typically causes: shame, inferiority, embarrassment, identity confusion, assimilation, and a phenomenon akin to racelessness, where children dissociate from the traditions and culture of their ancestors.

This book is the result of four years of rigorous research and academic peer-review, reflecting our ongoing commitment at Hindupedia to challenge the representation of Hindu Dharma within academia.


From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Swami Harshananda

Dāsakūṭa literally means ‘an assembly of the servants of God’. In the religio-philosophical literature of the religion both bhakti (devotion) and jñāna (knowledge) have been given equal prominence. Over the centuries, the various teachers of bhakti gave the common masses a simple philosophy to live life. They did this through their teachings which were mostly in the form of devotional songs. The Haridāsa movement was the pioneer of Bhakti movement in Karnataka, which comprised two parallel but closely knit units generally called the ‘Vyāsakuṭa’ and the ‘Dāsakūṭa’. The contribution of the Dāsakūṭa to the religion and culture through the life and literature of the various Haridāsas is considerable.

Pioneers Of Bhakti movement[edit]

The tradition of devotion with its popular religion and ethics originated in the following states and by the respective musician-saints that includes:

In North India  : By Tulasīdās (CE 1532-1623) , Kabīr (CE 1440-1518) , Nānak (CE 1469-1539) , Mīrābāī (CE 1450-1547)

In Maharashtra : By Sant Jñāneśvar (13th cent. CE), Ekanāth (CE 1533-1599),Tukārām (CE 1607-1694), Rāmadās (CE 1608-1681)

In Bengal  : By Śrīkṛṣṇa Caitanya (CE 1485-1533) , Rāmaprasād (CE 1720-1781) , Kamalākānta (CE 1800)

In Tamil Nadu  : By The Alvārs (7th to 9th centuries CE) , Nāyanmārs (7th and 8th centuries CE)

In Karnataka  : By Śiva- śaraṇas (12th cent. CE), Haridāsas (15th cent. CE)

Haridāsa Movement[edit]

The Haridāsa movement comprised two parallel but closely knit units generally called the ‘Vyāsakuṭa’ and the ‘Dāsakūṭa’. The former was nourished by the saṁnyāsins of the Mādhva school like Śrīpādarāya (15th cent. CE) and Vyāsarāya (CE 1447-1539) whereas the later was sustained by Purandaradāsa(CE 1484-1564), Kanakadāsa (15th cent. CE), Vijayadāsa (CE 1687-1755) and other householder-devotees of the same school. Though the Vyāsakuṭa derived its name from Vyāsarāya (also known as Vyāsatīrtha) who was responsible for the phenomenal growth of both the units, it was Srīpādarāya who was the pioneer of both.The saṁnyāsin teachers were great scholars both in Sanskrit and Kannaḍa (the vernaculars of Karnataka). They authored scholarly works in the Śivaśaraṇas movement. They composed popular devotional songs in the Haridāsas movement. The Haridāsas, though quite a few in number, were great scholars concentrated on spreading the cult of devotion. The Dvaita Vedānta of Madhvācārya (CE 1197-1276) preaches simple ethical principles through the songs which became very popular over the centuries. Apart from Purandaradāsa and Vijayadāsa, Gopāladāsa (CE 1721-1762) and Jagannāthadāsa (CE 1728-1809) too have contributed profusely to the Haridāsa literature. The Vijayanagara city and the Raichur district of Karnataka were the main centers of origin and activities of these Haridāsas.

Significant Preachers of Haridāsas Movement[edit]

Some of the other Haridāsas who contributed significantly to the Dāsakṅṭa and the bhakti movements include:

  1. Vaikuṇṭhadāsa
  2. Prasanna-Veṅkaṭadāsa
  3. Timmaṇṇa- dāsa
  4. Mohanadāsa
  5. Helavanakaṭṭe Giri- yamma (a lady-saint)
  6. Kalluru Subbaṇṇa- dāsa
  7. Aijīdāsa

Significant Characteristics of Haridāsas Movement[edit]

The compositions of the Haridāsas are legion. Their chief characteristic is simplicity. They express the profound truths of Vedānta in a simple language and urge the people to lead a God-centered life even while performing one’s normal duties in the world. The topics generally dealt with include:

  • Description of God’s form and beauty (almost always as Viṣṇu or Kṛṣṇa)
  • Childhood pranks of Kṛṣṇa
  • Various devotional practices like repetition of the divine name or singing the glories of God
  • Moral principles like satya (truth) and dharma (righteous living)
  • Evil nature of the evil ones (in order to avoid such conduct)
  • Some paurāṇic stories and some autobiographical references also
  • activism as well as dependence on God
  • A host of other miscellaneous subjects


  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore