Colonial Discourse and the Suffering of Indian American Children Book Cover.webp

In this book, we analyze the psycho-social consequences faced by Indian American children after exposure to the school textbook discourse on Hinduism and ancient India. We demonstrate that there is an intimate connection—an almost exact correspondence—between James Mill’s colonial-racist discourse (Mill was the head of the British East India Company) and the current school textbook discourse. This racist discourse, camouflaged under the cover of political correctness, produces the same psychological impacts on Indian American children that racism typically causes: shame, inferiority, embarrassment, identity confusion, assimilation, and a phenomenon akin to racelessness, where children dissociate from the traditions and culture of their ancestors.

This book is the result of four years of rigorous research and academic peer-review, reflecting our ongoing commitment at Hindupedia to challenge the representation of Hindu Dharma within academia.


From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Swami Harshananda

Manasā literally means ‘created by mind’.

Manasā is the goddess controlling all the reptiles, especially the snakes. Her worship is very common in Bengal and Assam. The tale narrates that when the people of the world were unable to bear the affliction created by snakes, they approached the great sage Kaśyapa. Snakes were his off springs. For assistance, he created the goddess Manasā by using his mental powers (manas = mind) as the presiding deity and controller of the reptiles.

Life of Manasā[edit]

She pleased Śiva and Viṣṇu through her severe austerities and obtained several boons from them. Jaratkāru was her another name. She was married to a sage whose name also was Jaratkāru. They gave birth to a son named Āstika. He later on succeeded in stopping the sarpayāga or serpent-sacrifice of the king Janamejaya, the son of Parīkṣit.

Different Names of Manasā[edit]

She is known by many other names that includes:

  • Trijagadgaurī
  • Sivā
  • Vaiṣṇavī
  • Nāgamātā
  • Viṣaharā
  • Mṛtasañjīvanī
  • Siddhayoginī

Repetition of her twelve names is said to give full protection against the poisonous reptiles.

Idol of Manasā[edit]

  • Her idols show her as a goddess with two arms, one holding a snake and the other in abhayamudrā.
  • She may also be shown with four arms and a seven-hooded snake, as a parasol, along with her husband, sage Jaratkāru, and her son Āstika.


  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore