From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Swami Harshananda


The Advaita Vedānta has been expounded by Śaṅkara (A. D. 788-820) in his bhāṣya or commentary on the Brahmasutras of Bādarāyaṇa, especially in the first four sutras. Padmapāda (9th century A. D.), a direct disciple of Śaṅkara, has written a commentary on it called Pañcapādikā. This was further commented by Prakāśātman (A. D. 1200), which he named as Pañcapādikā Vivarana, starting the Vivaraṇa school of Advaita as different from the Bhāmati school of Vācaspati (A. D. 840).

The Vivaranaprameyasañgraha attributed to Vidyāraṇya (14th century A. D.) is a scholarly polemical work in prose in nine varṇakas or chapters. It tries to give a detailed exposition of the various basic concepts of Advaita, especially avidyā[1] according to the Vivaraṇa school. The work is sometimes attributed to Bhāratītīrtha.


  1. Avidyā means nescience.
  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore