Colonial Discourse and the Suffering of Indian American Children Book Cover.webp

In this book, we analyze the psycho-social consequences faced by Indian American children after exposure to the school textbook discourse on Hinduism and ancient India. We demonstrate that there is an intimate connection—an almost exact correspondence—between James Mill’s colonial-racist discourse (Mill was the head of the British East India Company) and the current school textbook discourse. This racist discourse, camouflaged under the cover of political correctness, produces the same psychological impacts on Indian American children that racism typically causes: shame, inferiority, embarrassment, identity confusion, assimilation, and a phenomenon akin to racelessness, where children dissociate from the traditions and culture of their ancestors.

This book is the result of four years of rigorous research and academic peer-review, reflecting our ongoing commitment at Hindupedia to challenge the representation of Hindu Dharma within academia.

Śudra Hindu saints

From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Himanshu Bhatt

Śudra Hindu saints have been influential in Hindu history through their devotion to God Almighty became Hindu saints. They not only challenged barriers to become recognized as saints but encouraged Indian Hindus to not accept the caste system as valid, and that a person, whether Sudra or not, can be pure through their positive karma.

While Vedas were śastras that most Brahmins claimed as theirs to preach and interpret, sages like Badari taught that even Śudras have the legitimacy to do so, and many Śudras and Avarnas were taught the Vedas even in ancient times such Raikva did with his pupil Janaśruti Pautrāyaṇa.[1] However, in the case of Gulabrao Maharaj the Kunbi, he taught the Vedas to Brahmins.

Also, saint-gurus like Potuluri Swami and Saint Tukaram had Brahmins as their disciples. Saint Tukaram was the guru of Saint Bahinabai, while Saint Bullah Sahib, the Kunbi, was the guru of Saint Bhikha Sahib the Brahmin. Devara Dasimayya had several Brahmin disciples. Kabir was the guru of Brahmin Suratgopal and Jagudas[2]

Some Śudra saints were even the gurus of kings. This was the case of Dhoyi for Bengali King Lakshman Sen, Pambatti was the guru of Brahmin Sri Paramahaṅsa, Goraksanath was guru and later husband of princess Karpatinatha, Ramananda Raya was the guru for Oriya King Prataparudradeva, Sena Nhavi was the guru of the Raja of Bandhogarh,[3] and Namdev was the guru of King Mahadaji Shinde. Even Lord Rama in the Valmiki Rāmāyana had paid reverence to Śudra Matanga and his disciple Śabari.[4]

Few Hindu scriptures even describe God Almighty incarnating as a Śudra. Supporting this thought there is an example of Viṣṇu being manifested as a Śudra and Harijan in the Śrimad Bhāgavatam where the God as the trinity of Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Śiva incarnates as a Brahmin, Śudra, and Harijan to test Rantideva.[5] Yama is also said to incarnate as the Śudra Vidura.[6]

Saint Veerabrahmam says to his sons by using examples of Valmiki and Vaṣiṣṭha on attaining Brahminhood:

"One, though born a Śudra, acquiring spiritual knowledge should be treated as Brahmin and one, even if born from a Brahmin womb, would be qualified as Śudra, if found lacking such knowledge. Śudra and Brahmana arise not by birth but by deed."

Some Brahmin castes trace lineage to Śudras. To support this statement there are many examples in history denoted below:

  • The Brahmin warrior Parshurama made Kaivarta[7] along the Maharashtrian coast Brahmins.[8] The Brahmin groups that claim receiving Brahminhood from Parashurama are the Chitpavans and Kokanasthas.
  • The Matti Brahmins of Surat[9] and Kanara people of Karnataka have the tradition of Matsya origin.
  • Shenavi Brahmins of Maharashtra too claim to be descendant of Parshurama's selected fishermen.
  • Kerala's Namboothiri Brahmins are also believed to descend from fishermen that were selected by Parashurama.
  • Vyasokta Brahmins of Bengal claim in one account that they descent from Vyasa's disciples that were fishermen originally and they serve the Kaivartas and Mahiṣyas castes.

There are also Brahmin communities that serve Śudras for Hindu ceremonies. The Madhyaśreni Brahmans of Bengal serve Nabasakha castes, like potters, barbers and blacksmiths. The Rapali Brahmins of Bengal serve Rapalis.[10] The Mali Brahmins serve Malis. Chamarwa Brahmins serve Chamars. Dakaut Brahmins descend from a union between a Brahman man and a Kumharni Śudra or out-caste princess of Kashmir named Bhandli who are also referred to a 'Gujrati'.

Even the persons of non-Brahmin parentage have become Brahmins, such as Kayavya the son of a Kshatriya male and Nisada mother. Other examples of Śudras that became Brahmin are Rom Harshan Suta Maharaja, the narrator of several the Purāṇas, and Satya Kam Jabali, who was conferred Brahminhood by Haridrumata Gautama Swami. Matanga was another Sudra of the Barber caste that received Brahminhood for his asceticism. Other revered ancient saints mentioned as Śudra by birth that became Brahmins are Datta[11], Prince Datta[12], Matsya, Vaibhandaka, and Purnananda. Kanha was the person who became a rishi and used his powers to save his life from King Oka and Kanha is the ancestor of Kanhayanas.[13]

Further, there are Brahmin gotras that claim descent from sages of Śudra backgrounds. For example, Parāśara is a gotra just like Vyāsa and Vatsa is another gotra of whom the descendants are known as Vatsyāyana. Mātanga is another gotra and a scholarly Brahmin named Kashyapa Mātanga was of this lineage. Shabara (or Shavara) is also a gotra amongst the Brahmins and it refers to forest tribals from whom Brahmins of this ancestral lineage came into existence. Jabala is another modern day gotra which claims descent from Satyakama Jabala, who was given the sacred thread ceremony by Gautama Ṝshi.

Sage Parasara advises King Janaka:

Brahmanas, learned in Vedas, regard a virtuous Śudra (or one born in the house of a Śudra) as a model of Brahman himself.

In some places, such as the sacred Kashi , many priests of Śudra castes work with Brahmins in performing ceremonies. Śudra castes normally include Nai, Kurmi, Keori, Kahar, Teli, Halwai, Mali, and Manjai.[14]

Saintly development amongst Śudras[edit]

Of the irrelevance of caste, especially in terms of religion Basava Swami said the following:[15] In the Bhakti Era, saints from menial occupations continued work in their menial positions while also challenging barriers and worship God. The Varkari sect Saint Eknath writes of the non-Dwija saints:[16]
Sankhya was a sweeper;
Agastya, a huntsman;
Durvasa, a cobbler;
Dadhici, a locksmith;
Kasyapa, a blacksmith;
Romaja, a coppersmith;
Kaundilya, a barber;
So, why should you then,
In ignorance of this,
Insist on caste?
God baked pots with Gora,
Drove cattle with Chokha,
Cut grass with Savata,
Wove garments with Kabir,
Colored hide with Rohidas,
Sold meat with the butcher Sajana,
Melted gold with Narahari
Carried cow-dung with Janabai,
and even became a Pariah messenger for Damaji.


List of prominent saints[edit]

Saint Kabir stamp
Saint Narayana Guru Indian stamp
Saint Narayana Guru Sri Lankan stamp
Saint Tukaram stamp
Name Ethnicity Caste Sect Compositions Other significance
Acyutananda Oriya Gopa (Cowherd) Vaiṣnava (devotee of Kṛṣṇa) Gopalanka Gita, Baran Charita Gitā, and Sabdobrahmo. One of the five Panchasakhas, born in Tilakana (Cuttack district in Orissa),[17] major figure of Vaiṣnavism, and was the patron saint of Gopalas (cow-hearders), Kaivartas (fishermen), Kamaras (blacksmiths). His disciples were people from all castes, including a Nanda (Blacksmith), Naran (Blacksmith), Rama (Blacksmith), and Ramadas (Potter.) He has several followers, such as 140 at Kasi Muktiswar grama and 110 at Chitranga tota.
Adipattan Tamil Fisherman[18] Śaiva One of 63 Nayanar Śaivite saints.
Aidakki Marayya Kannada Grain-picker Śaiva
A disciple of Basava.
Akho Guajrati Sonar (Goldsmith) Vaiṣnava (Nirguna Sampradaya - Kabir Panth) Akhe-gita.
Algai Tamil Śaiva
Ambigara Caudayya Kannada Ambiga or Kabbera[19] Śaiva (Lingayat) He was one of the disciples of Basava.
Anirudh Ahomi Vaiṣnava (Moamaria) He founded the Moamaria Vaiṣnava sect and was a part of the rebellion against the ruling dynasty that governed Ahom.
Appanna Kannada Barber Śaiva
A disciple of Basava.
Bachi Rajayya Kannada Carpenter[19] Śaiva (Lingayat) He was one of the disciples of Basava.
Badalnayik[1] PDF Maithili Teli He is also worshiped in Bhagalpur.
Badihori Brahmayya Kannada Cowherd[19] Śaiva (Lingayat) He was one of the disciples of Basava.
Baladeb Mahity Oriya Karan[20] Vaiṣnava
Balaram Das Oriya Bauri[21] Sudra Muni Vaiṣnava (devotee of Kṛṣṇa) He wrote the Sidhanta Damaru, Jagmohan Rāmāyana, and some commentaries One of the five Panchasakhas, born in Orissa and a major figure of Vaiṣnavism.,[22]
Barsiyadano[2] PDF Maithili Palanquin bearer He is also worshiped in Bhagalpur.
Bhima Dhibara Oriya Dhibara (Fisherman)[23] Vaiṣnava He wrote the Kapata-pasha, which re-tells the aftermath of the Mahābhārata.
Bhoja Bhagat Nachabkha (also Bhojaram) Gujarati Kunbi[24] Vaiṣnava (devotee of Kṛṣṇa) Wrote artis, dholas, kafis, kirtans, mahinas, prabhatias, tithis and varas. He was the guru of saints Jalaram and Valamram.
Bogar Tamil Goldsmith[25] or Potter[26] Śaiva Siddhar who became a Siddhar under the guidance of Kalanginaathar. It is said that he proceeded to China to teach the ways of the Siddhars. There is a myth that Lao Tze is Bogar. Bogar’s Samadhi is to be found in the South West corridor at the Palani Muruga shrine.
Bullah Sahib (also Bulaqi Ram) Hindi Kunbi[27] Vaiṣnava
Changdev Raul Marathi Raul Vaiṣnava (Mahanubhav) The disciple of Gundan Raul, who founded of the Mahanubhav Vaishnava sect. His disciple was the Brahman Chakradhar.
Charan Pal Bengali Gopi (Milkman)[28] Vaiṣnava (Sahebdhani) The disciple of Dukhiram Pal, who founded the Sahebdhani Vaishnava sect.
Chaudayya Kannada Ferryman Śaiva
A disciple of Basava.
Dandi Tamil, Digger Śaiva
Dayal Singha[3] PDF Maithili Boatman He is also worshiped in Bhagalpur.
Devara Dasimayya Kannada Weaver[19] Śaiva (Lingayat) He was one of the disciples of Basava.
Dhanurdasa (also Urangavilli) Tamil Dasar Vaiṣnava (Sri Vaiṣnava) He was a disciple of Rāmānuja.
Dohara Kakkaya Kannada Dhor[19] Śaiva (Lingayat) He was one of the disciples of Basava.
Dhoyi Bengali Weaver[29] Vaiṣnava He wrote the Pavana-duta and his other verses are also found in the anthologies like Sadukti-Karnamrita, Subhashita-muktavali, and Sarangadhara-paddhati. He belonged to the court of Lakshman Sen, the King of Bengal.
Dukhiram Pal (also Mulicarid Pal) Bengali Gopi (Milkman)[30] Vaiṣnava (Sahebdhani) Founder of the Sahebdhani Vaiṣnava sect and took Muslims as disciples as well.
Dadu Dayal Gujarati Dhunia (Cotton-carder)[31] Vaiṣnava (Nirguna Sampradaya - Dadu Panth) Founded Dadu Panth, and tried to bridge gap between Hindus and Muslims.
Edaikkadar Tamil Cowherd Śaiva He was one of the eighteen Siddhars.
Enadinatha Tamil Shanar (Toddy-tapper)[32] Śaiva
Enath Tamil Swordsman Śaiva
Gadge Maharaj (also Debuji Zhingraji Janorkar) Marathi Kunbi[33] Vaiṣnava (devotee of Viṭhala)
Gorakhnath Oriya Fisherman or Farmer[34] Śaiva (Nāth Sampradaya) He was the disciple of Matsyendranāth and is also worshiped by Śaivas, Vaiṣnavas, Tantrics and Buddhists. Legends of him exist not only throughout most of India, but also Afghanistan and Sri Lanka.
Gopabai Marathi Kasar Sonar (Goldsmith) Vaiṣnava (Varkari) She wrote many Abhangas devoted to Viṭhala.
Goroba Kumbhar Marathi Kumhar (Potter)[35]
Gulabrao Maharaj Marathi Kunbi[36] He taught the Vedas to the Brahmins, and accomplished much though being a blind person.
Gundan Raul (also Govind Prabhu) Marathi Raul Vaiṣnava (Mahanubhav) The founder of the Mahanubhav Vaishnava sect. His disciple was Changdev Raul.
Gundayya Kannada Potter[19] Śaiva (Lingayat) He was one of the discples of Basava.
Hadapad Rechanna Kannada Barber Śaiva (Lingayat[37]) A disciple of Basava.
Ilakkulaccanrar Tamil Śanar[38] (Toddy-tapper) Śaiva
Jagannath Mahiti Oriya Karan[39] Vaiṣnava
Jhankivir[4] PDF Maithili Boatman He is also worshiped in Bhagalpur.
Kanudas[5] PDF Maithili Boatman He is also worshiped in Bhagalpur.
Kashinath Mahiti Oriya Karan[40] Vaiṣnava His name is mentioned in the Vaiṣnavabandanas of Jiva Goswami.
Kayalavir[6] PDF Maithili Boatman He is also worshiped in Bhagalpur.
Ketayya Kannada Basket-maker Śaiva (Lingayat) He was one of the disciples of Basava.
Kola Santayya Kannada Śaiva (Lingayat) He was one of the disciples of Basava.
Kotayya Kannada Burud[19] (Bamboo-workers) Śaiva (Lingayat) He was one of the disciples of Basava.
Kumari Molla Telugu Molla (Potter)[41] Vaiṣnava (devotee of Rama) Wrote the Ramayanumu.
Kabir Hindi Julaha (Weaver)[42] Vaiṣnava (Nirguna Sampradaya - Kabir Panth) He tried to bring peace between Hindus and Muslims. He is revered as one of India's greatest saints and philosophers by all Indians.
Kaka Bhusundar Ahomi Vaiṣnava (devotee of Rāma) Bhusundi Rāmāyana
Kala Kumbhar Marathi Kumbhar (Potter) Vaiṣnava (devotee of Viṭhala)
Kaliyan Tamil Oil-monger[43] Śaiva
Kanakadas Kannada Kuruba[44] or Beda[45] Vaiṣnava (devotee of Kṛṣṇa and Beeraiah)
Kahar Weaver Vaiṣnava (devotee of Viṣṇu)[46]
Kamalamuni Tamil Kuravar Śaiva He is one of the eighteen Siddhars.
Kuba Punjabi Kumhar (Potter)[47] Vaiṣnava
Kanchipurna[48] (also Kacchi Nambi) Tamil Vaiṣnava (devotee of Viṣṇu) He was a disciple of Yamunacarya and due to he saintly character and devotion, he himself is worshiped as Varadarajan at Viṣṇu Kanchi.
Kandadai Ramanuja Dasar Tamil Vaiṣnava (Sri Vaiṣnava) He was a disciple of Ramanuja.
Kinnari Bamayya Kannada Musician Śaiva
A disciple of Basava.
Kuripputondar Tamil Vannan (Washerman)[49] Śaiva
Kuber Sarkar Bengali Gopa Vaiṣnava (Sahebdhani) Successor of Charan Pal.
Kukkuti Siddha Ahomi Śaiva He was closely associated with Minanath and was an inspiration to Matsyendranath.
Madhava Kandali (also Madhavadeva) Ahomi Hira Vaiṣnava (Ekasarana Dharma) He was the chief disciple of Śankardev and preached the message Vaiṣnavism to gain devotees.[43]
Madhavagar Gujarati Vaiṣnava
Madiwal Machayya Kannada Washerman[19] Śaiva (Lingayat) He was one of the disciples of Basava.
Thirumaligai Thevar Tamil Śaiva He is one of the eighteen Siddhars and the disciple of Bogar.
Mangai Tamil Kalla Vaiṣnava (devotee of Kṛṣṇa) Periya Thirumozhi, 1084 verses; Thiru Vezhukootru irukkai, 1 verse; Thiru Kurun Thandagam, 20 verses; Thiru Nedun Thandagam, 30 verses. Alvar saint.
Maraner Nambi[48] Tamil Pahcama Vaiṣnava (devotee of Viṣṇu) Maraner-nambi-charitram He was a disciple of Yamunacarya.
Matanga Barber Hindu scriptures recognize him as a saint who went through penances (tapasya) to reach the status of Brahminhood.
Mātanga Barber He was the son of Matanga, guru of Śabari and father of goddess Matangi. He and his disciple Śabari had met Lord Rama and Laxmana and were given reverence from the holy brothers.
Mātangi Barber She is worshiped as a form of Durga, and was the offspring of Matanga Muni.
Matsya Fisherman Worshiped by Vaishanavas an an avatar of Vishnu that saved the life of Satyavrata Manu by directing his boat out of the flood.
Matsyendranath (also Minanath) Fisherman Śaiva (Nāth Sampradāya) Worshiped by Śaivas, Vaiṣnavas, Tantrics and Buddhists
Mepa Bhagat Gujarati Kumhar (Potter) Vaiṣnava He became the disciple of Gabinath, after which he lived as a saint himself. He inspired other Gujarati Hindu saints like Apa Rata and Apa Jadra.
Minanath Ahomi Fisherman He was the inspiration to the Nāth Panth's founder Matsyendranath, whose name means the same as Minanath's. Minanath had several disciples and amongst them were His disciples were Hali (peasant), Mali (gardener) and Tambuli (tooth-painter.)
Mitho Gujarati Dhadhi[50] Vaiṣnava
Munna Das Hindi Goldsmith[51] Vaiṣnava (Apapanthi) Founded the Apapanthi sect of Vaiṣnavas that worship Lord Rama.
Murkha Tamil Śaiva Gambler
Mutucuriyar Tamil Cenkunta (Weaver) Śaiva He was the brother of Ilancuriyar (born blind) and together they both lived a saintly life.
Nambi Eru Tiruvadaiya Dasar Tamil Śanar (Toddy-tapper) Vaiṣnava (Sri Vaiṣnava) He was one of the disciples of Ramanuja.
Namdev Marathi Śimpi (Weaver)[52] Vaiṣnava (Varkari devotee of Viṭhoba) Wrote Abhangs devoted to Kṛṣṇa. It is said that he is a part (Aṅṣa) of Lord Kṛṣṇa. He was a disciple of Saint Visoba Khechara.
Nammalvar[53] Tamil Cultivator Vaiṣnava (devotee of Kṛṣṇa) Thiruvaymozhi, 1102 verses; Thiruvasiriyam, 7 verses; Thiruvirutham, 100 verses; Periya Thiruvandhadhi, 87 verses.
Nandanar[54] Tamil Pulaya[55] Śaiva One of the 63 Nayanars.
Narahari Sonar Tamil Sunar (Goldsmith)[56] Vaiṣnava (devotee of Kṛṣṇa) Wrote Abhangs devoted to Kṛṣṇa.
Narayana Guru Malayalam Ezhava Śaiva
Neelakanda Tamil Kalalar (Potter) Śaiva One of 63 Nayanar Śaivite saints.
Neelan Tamil Kuyavan (Potter)[57] Vaiṣnava Powerful warrior and king of Thirumangai (part of Chola Empire.)
Nesar Tamil Weaver[43] Śaiva Nayanar devotee of Śiva, one of 63 Śaivite saints.
Nilajantayalppanan Tamil Panan (Musician[43]) Śiva
Nisargadatta Maharaj Marathi Kunbi Śaiva A disciple of Siddharameshwar Maharaj.
Nishkulananda (also Lalji Suthar) Gujarati Suthar[58] Vaiṣnava (Swami Narayan) About 20 books and 3000 verses are ascribed to him. Among the books are Purushottam Prakash, Yama-danda, Bhakta-chintamani, Dhirajakhyam.
Nuliya Chandayya Kannada Rope-maker Śaiva
A disciple of Basava.
Pambatti Tamil Kozhayi (Cowherd) Śaiva He had worked as a snake-charmer, and he is one of the eighteen Siddhars, and the guru of the Brahmin Sri Sivaprabhakara Siddhayogi Paramahamsar.
Pampa Barber A nun and a daughter of Rishi Matanga.
Pana Tamil Panan (Musician) Vaiṣnava (devotee of Ranganatha) Alvar saint.
Pillai Uranga Villi Dasar Tamil Malla Dasar Vaiṣnava
Ponajji Bala Marathi Gwala (Milkman) Vaiṣnava He wrote stories of Kṛṣṇa. He was famous for his lavani compositions.
Potuluri Veerabrahmam (also Potuluri Swami) Telugu Carpenter Śaiva His disciples included Brahmins like Annajayya, Muslims like Siddhayya and chura (cobbler) ‘untouchables’ like Kakkayya
Pulipani Tamil Hunter[59] Shaiva He was an important Siddhar.
Putushottama Dasa Oriya Cow-herder Vaiṣnava He wrote the Dutia-osa, Ganga-Mahatmya, Gundicha Bije, Kanchi-Kaveri and Mriganist-uti.
Rajjab Hindi Naddaf (Cotton-carder[60]) Vaiṣnava (Nirguna Sampradaya - Dadu Panth) Disciple of Saint Dadu Dayal devotee of Rama.
Raka Kumbhar Marathi Kumbhar (Potter)[61] Vaiṣnava (devotee of Viṭhala)
Ramakrishna Gosvamin Bengali Kaivarta (Fisherman) Vaiṣnava (Jaganmohani) Founder of the Jaganmohani Vaishnava sect, which preaches worship of Krishna and gurus of the sect. He also founded, in the seventeenth century, a monastery or Akhda at Vithangal.
Ramananda Raya (also Ramananda Pattanayak) Oriya Karana[62] Vaiṣnava Very important devotee of Kṛṣṇa and brought Vaiṣnava Bhakti tradition to Bengal from Orisa. Rāya was the title given to him by King Prataparudradeva.
Ramanna Kannada Cattle-grazer Śaiva
A disciple of Basava.
Ramanuja Dasar Tamil Kammalar (Sculptor) He was a disciple of Ramanuja.
Rami Janabai Marathi Dasi[63] Vaiṣnava (Devotee of Rama) Domestic servant in Namdev's home who performed Vātsalya Bhakti on Lord Rama.
Rawaltdas[7] PDF Maithili Washerman He is also worshiped in Bhagalpur.
Revana Siddeshwara Kannada Kuruba Śaiva Considered by Kurubas to be an incarnation of Lord Shiva. There are temples in his name.
Roma Rishi Tamil Kura or Fisherman[64] Śaiva He is one of the eighteen Siddhars.
Rom Harshan (also Suta Maharaja) Narrator of the Puranas.
Sarala Das Oriya Sudramuni Vaiṣnava Wrote the entire Mahābhārata scripture in Oriya.
Sashtam Swami Gujarati Rabari Vaiṣnava Installed a Rama statue at a temple.
Savata Mali Marathi Mali (Gardener) Vaiṣnava (devotee of Viṭhala) Wrote Abhangs devoted to Kṛṣṇa.
Saina Nhavi Marathi Nai (Barber) Vaiṣnava Wrote Abhangs devoted to Kṛṣṇa.
Sachidanand Marathi Nai (Barber) Datta Sampradāya
Sakya Tamil Peltar Śaiva
Śambuka Śaiva Śambuka had his own hermitage and was a disciple of Agastya and a Vedic-versed rishi. Śambuka's killing in the "Uttara Khanda" was a latter inversion according to several scholars. Bhagwan Singh claims it was by Śakti, the son of Vaṣiṣtha that had lost in a debate to Śambuka. Many scholars like Kuvempu argue that the story is a later interpolation which cannot be done by Rama.
Śivaprakashar Siddhar Tamil He was a disciple of Arul Namacchivayar.
Siddharameshwar Maharaj Marathi Śaiva
Śrirama Ahomi Kaivarta (Fisherman) Vaiṣnava (Ekasarana Dharma) He was a disciple of Śankardev and preached the message Vaiṣnavism to gain devotees.[43]
Sundaranandar Tamil Agamudayar (Thevar) Reddy Śaiva He was one of the eighteen Siddhars and the grandson of Navakānda Rishi
Tamolbaria Ahomi Vaiṣnava
Tanu Pal Bengali Mahishya[65] Tantric
Tukaram Marathi Moray (Peddler) Vaiṣnava (devotee of Viṭhala) He wrote several "Abhangs" devoted to Kṛṣṇa. Explained Vaiṣnava scriptures such as the Bhagavad Gitā and the Bhāgavata Purāṇa. He was the guru of the Brahmin Bahinabai.
Tukdoji Maharaj Marathi Kunbi Śaiva Also a musician, that sang and composed many songs to God.
Ugrasrava Sauti Vaiṣnava He was the son of Roma Harshan and narrator of Purāṇic scriptures.
Vaikunda Swamikal (also Mudisoodum Perumal, Sampooranathevan, or Ayya Vaikundar) Tamil Vaiṣnava His followers, the Ayyavazhi consider him to be an avatār of Viṣṇu.
Valamram Gujarati Kunbi Vaiṣnava (devotee of Kṛṣṇa) He was the disciple of Bhoja Bhagat. Disciple of Bhoja Bhagat and the Guru-Bhai of Saint Jalaram of Virpur.

Mixed Śudra-Brahmin saints[edit]

Some prominent saints were of diverse caste backgrounds. Chandidas, the Bengali had married Rami a washerwoman. Jayadeva married Padmavati the dancer. Sundardas had married a courtesan.

  • Aitreya Mahidasa - Composed the Aitreya Brahmana and sections 1-3 of the Aitreya Aranyaka (the latter contains the Aitreya Upaniṣad - 1 of the 10 canonical chief Upanishads) of the Ṛig Veda
  • Dhanwantari - Son of Dirghatamas and of a Dasi
  • Dhugra Thamas - Son of a Dasi female named Mamatha
  • Ghosa - Daughter to Bhakta Kakshivat who wrote verses in the Ṛig Veda
  • Jamdagni - Son of fisherwoman Satyavati
  • Kakshivat - A "brahmavadin" who was the son of Dirghatamas by a Śudra maid servant[66]. His descendants are also referred to as "Kakshivat"
  • Kausika Muni - Son of a Śudra mother[67]
  • Kavasha Ailusha - Son of a Dasi[68]
  • Krishna Dvaipayana Ved Vyasa - The compiler of Hindu scriptures such as the Bhagavad Gita, and Mahabharata, was said to either be of a fisherwoman or from Sudra parents.
  • Matanga - He was born of a Brahmin mother and a barber Śudra father. He was a guru of Lord Rama.
  • Nārada Muni - Son of a maidservant
  • Vatsa - According to the Rig Veda, he is a descendant of Kanva RV 6.1; 8.8 etc.; was called a Śudra-putra (Panchavimsha Brahmana 14.66)
  • Vibhishana - Son of Visravas and a tribal mother named Nikasha
  • Vishwamitra - Son of fisherwoman (Satyavati's mother)
  • Yavanacharya - He was the son of a Brahmin father and Śudra mother from Ujjain[69]

See also[edit]


  1. P.43, Sa?kara's Advaita Vedanta: a way of teaching, By Jacqueline Suthren Hirst
  2. His father was a priest of the Puri Jagannath temple.
  3. P. 252 The cultural heritage of India: Sri Ramakrishna centenary memorial by Sri Ramakrishna Centenary Committee
  4. It includes the Ādivāsi Saint Valmiki, and Vaṣiṣṭha of Dalit heritage.
  5. P. 231, The concise Śrimad Bhāgavata?, By Venkatesananda (Swami.)
  6. P. 8 Indica, Volume 4 By Heras Institute of Indian History and Culture, St. Xavier's College., 1967 - India
  7. It means Fishermen.
  8. P. 96 Research in sociology : abstracts of M.A. and Ph. D. dissertations completed in the Department of Sociology By Narain, Dhirendra, Indian Council of Social Science Research, University of Bombay. Dept. of Sociology
  9. It is in Gujarat.
  10. It means Weavers.
  11. Mahābhārata 12.297
  12. Mahābhārata 12.297
  13. P. 84 The Two Sources of Indian Asceticism By Johannes Bronkhorst
  14. P. 103 The Sacred Complex of Kashi: A Microcosm of Indian Civilization By Lalita Prasad Vidyarthi, Makhan Jha, Baidyanath Saraswati
  15. P. 480 A Sourcebook of Indian Civilization edited by Niharranjan Ray, Brajadulal Chattopadhyaya
  16. P. 42-43 Living Through the Blitz By Tom Harrisson
  17. P. 140, Prataparudradeva, the last great Suryavamsi King of Orissa (A.D. 1497 to A.D..., By Dipti Ray
  18. Lord Śiva and His Worship
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 19.4 19.5 19.6 19.7 P. 384 The Castes and Tribes of H.E.H. the Nizam's Dominions, Volume 1 By Syed Siraj ul Hassan
  20. P. 77 The Bhakti Movement in Orissa: A Comprehensive History by Achintya Kumar Deb
  21. P. 31, Prataparudradeva, the last great Suryavamsi King of Orissa (A.D. 1497 to A.D..., By Dipti Ray
  22. P. 43, The Quarterly review of historical studies, Volume 43, Institute of Historical Studies (Calcutta, India)
  23. P. 53 A Dictionary of Indian Literature, Volume 1 By Sujit Mukherjee
  24. Akademi, p. 128 Medieval Indian Literature
  25. Bhogar One of the Greatest Siddhas of South India
  26. P. 92 Bulletin of the Institute of Traditional Cultures of South and S.E. Asia, Madras By Institute of Traditional Cultures
  27. P. 89 The Lord As Guru: Hindi Sants in the North Indian Tradition by Daniel Gold
  28. P. 101 Caste, Culture and Hegemony: Social Dominance in Colonial Bengal By Sekhar Bandyopadhyay
  29. P. 210 Sekasubhodaya of Halayudha Misra: Translated Into English and Edited with Notes and Introduction by Halayudhamisra
  30. P. 339 Medieval Bhakti Movements in India: Sri Caitanya Quincentenary Commemoration Volume by Chaitanya
  31. Dadu Dayal
  32. 63 Nyayanmars
  33. p. 10 Contribution of Upasani Baba to Indian culture S. N. Tipnis
  34. Tantric Art of Orissa By Jitamitra Prasada Si?hadeba
  35. P. 1177 People of India: Maharashtra, Part 2 edited by B. V. Bhanu
  36. Samartha Satguru Pradhnyachakshu Madhuradwaitacharya Shri Gulabrao Maharaj
  37. P. 233 Veerashaivism in India By Suryakant Balasaheb Ghugare
  38. Hindu Tamil Saints: Alwars and Nayanmaars of South India
  39. P. 83 The Bhakti Movement in Orissa: A Comprehensive History by Achintya Kumar Deb
  40. P. 85 The Bhakti Movement in Orissa: A Comprehensive History by Achintya Kumar Deb
  41. P. 406 Bharatiya Sa?skr?ti, Volume 2 by Prabhakara Macave
  42. p. 81 Masterworks of Asian literature in comparative perspective: a guide for teaching By Barbara Stoler Miller
  43. 43.0 43.1 43.2 43.3 43.4 P. 176 Tamil Literature By Kamil Zvelebil
  44. p. 125 Annals of oriental research, Volume 32, Part 1 By University of Madras,
  45. p. 5 Priceless gold: the life and works of Sri Kanakadasa, the singer-saint of Karnataka By L. S. Seshagiri Rao
  46. Ranchi University p. 58 Journal of Social Research
  47. p. 46 Pottery-Making Cultures And Indian Civilization By Saraswati Baidyanath
  48. 48.0 48.1 P. 98 A history of Indian philosophy, Volume 3 By Surendranath Dasgupta
  49. P. 212 Historical Dictionary of the Tamils By Vijaya Ramaswamy
  50. P. 578 Literary Cultures in History: Reconstructions from South Asia edited by Sheldon I. Pollock
  51. P. 27, Survey of India's social life and economic condition in the eighteenth century, 1707-1813, by Kalikinkar Datta
  52. p. 126 A Social Charter For India: Citizens Perspective Of Basic Rights By Dubey Muchkund
  53. p. 49 Temples of Kr???a in South India: history, art, and traditions in Tamilnadu By T. Padmaja
  54. p. 14 Nandanar, the Dalit martyr: a historical reconstruction of his times By Sundararaj Manickam
  55. P. 212 Historical Dictionary of the Tamils By Vijaya Ramaswamy
  56. p. 31 Sages Through Ages - Volume IV: India's Heritage By K. K. Nair
  57. P. 212 Historical Dictionary of the Tamils By Vijaya Ramaswamy
  58. A Dictionary of Indian Literature, Volume 1 By Sujit Mukherjee
  59. P. 92 Bulletin of the Institute of Traditional Cultures of South and S.E. Asia, Madras By Institute of Traditional Cultures
  60. Ayyappapanicker & Akademi, p. 465 Medieval Indian Literature
  61. P. 21 Language and Literature by Directorate of Government Printing, Stationery and Publications, Maharashtra State
  62. P. 124 Prataparudradeva, the Last Great Suryavamsi King of Orissa (A.D. 1497 to A.D ... By Dipti Ray
  63. p. 216 Images of women in Maharashtrian literature and religion By Anne Feldhaus
  64. P. 92 Bulletin of the Institute of Traditional Cultures of South and S.E. Asia, Madras By Institute of Traditional Cultures
  65. P. 101 Caste, culture, and hegemony: social domination in colonial Bengal By Sekhara Bandyopadhya?a
  66. Brihaddevata 4.24-25
  67. P. 31 Swaraj: The Problem of India By J. E. Ellam
  68. P. 81 Early Aryans to Swaraj By S.R. Bakshi, S.G
  69. P. 172 A Hindu in America By Bangalore Venkat Raman