By Swami Harshananda
Adravya literally means ‘non-substance’.
The darśanas’ deal with three topics:
The adravyas are ten:
- Rajas and tamas - the three guṇas or qualities of prakṛti or insentient nature
- Sabda - sound
- Sparśa - touch
- Rupa - color or form
- Rasa - taste
- Gandha - odor
- Ākāśa - ether
- Saiṅyoga - conjunction or external relation between substances
- Śakti - potency or the effecting agency in all causal substances as for instance, plasticity in clay or the
power of attraction in a magnet
According to Viśiṣṭādvaita, instances can be given where an adravya can be viewed both as a substance and as an attribute. For example, though light is an attribute of an effulgent object, it serves also as a substance, since it is subject to contraction and diffusion, and possesses color as an attribute. Dharmabhṅtajñāna is another example.
- The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore