Colonial Discourse and the Suffering of Indian American Children Book Cover.webp

In this book, we analyze the psycho-social consequences faced by Indian American children after exposure to the school textbook discourse on Hinduism and ancient India. We demonstrate that there is an intimate connection—an almost exact correspondence—between James Mill’s colonial-racist discourse (Mill was the head of the British East India Company) and the current school textbook discourse. This racist discourse, camouflaged under the cover of political correctness, produces the same psychological impacts on Indian American children that racism typically causes: shame, inferiority, embarrassment, identity confusion, assimilation, and a phenomenon akin to racelessness, where children dissociate from the traditions and culture of their ancestors.

This book is the result of four years of rigorous research and academic peer-review, reflecting our ongoing commitment at Hindupedia to challenge the representation of Hindu Dharma within academia.


From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia

By Swami Harshananda

Ṛṣi literally means ‘a man of wisdom.

The word is derived from the verbal root ṛṣ which means ‘to know’. The word ṛṣi means any person who has attained expertise and proficiency in any field of knowledge. Hence, a ṛṣi need not be a person of religious, philosophical or spiritual bent of mind. In this sense, an expert in any field of knowledge like Caraka, Suśruta or Bhāskarācārya, can be called a ṛṣi.

General Meaning of Ṛṣi[edit]

However, in a more restricted sense, only a person of spiritual wisdom, who has transcended sansāra or trans-migratory existence, can be termed as ṛṣi. Being a man of perfect chastity with tremendous self-control and deeply devoted to truth, he is also capable of blessing the good and cursing the wicked. Rṣis could have been born in all castes and classes, because they attained that state by dint of their self-effort.

Classification of Ṛṣis[edit]

The general belief is that the number of ṛṣis may be around 48,000. They can be classified as:

  1. Devarṣi - A sage honored even by the devas or gods is a devarṣi.
  2. Brahmarṣi - One who has realised Brahman or is an expert in the Vedas is a brahmarṣi.
  3. Rājarṣi - A rāja or a king who has attained high spiritual states is a rājarṣi.
  4. Maharṣi - A maharṣi is one who is considered as very great.
  5. Paramarṣi - Paramarṣi is one who has realized Paramātman or God.
  6. Śrutarṣi - A śrutarṣi is one about whom many have heard, i.e., who is famous.
  7. Kāṇdarṣi - A sage to whom a kāṇḍa or a section of the Veda has been revealed, is a kāṇḍarṣi.

Present age Saptarṣis[edit]

The group of seven famous sages is known as Saptarṣis. The Saptarṣis of the present age are:

  1. Viśvāmitra
  2. Jamadagni
  3. Bharadvāja
  4. Gautama
  5. Atri
  6. Vasiṣṭha
  7. Kaśyapa

Other Great Ṛṣis[edit]

Apart from the saptarṣis mentioned earlier, the following are a few of the several great ṛṣis mentioned in the scriptures:

  1. Nārada
  2. Kaṇva
  3. Garga
  4. Vālmiki
  5. Vyāsa
  6. Suka
  7. Agastya
  8. Vāmadeva
  9. Aṣtāvakra
  10. Bhṛgu
  11. Lomaśa
  12. Durvāsas
  13. Dhaumya
  14. Sanaka
  15. Mārkaṇḍeya
  16. Maudgalya


  • The Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Swami Harshananda, Ram Krishna Math, Bangalore