Colonial Discourse and the Suffering of Indian American Children Book Cover.webp

In this book, we analyze the psycho-social consequences faced by Indian American children after exposure to the school textbook discourse on Hinduism and ancient India. We demonstrate expose the correspondence between textbooks and the colonial-racist discourse. This racist discourse produces the same psychological impacts on Indian American children that racism typically causes: shame, inferiority, embarrassment, identity confusion, assimilation, and a phenomenon akin to racelessness, where children dissociate from the traditions and culture of their ancestors.

This book is the result of four years of rigorous research and academic peer-review, reflecting our ongoing commitment at Hindupedia to challenge the representation of Hindu Dharma within academia.


From Hindupedia, the Hindu Encyclopedia
(Redirected from Darsana)

By Shankara Bharadwaj Khandavalli and Himanshu Bhatt

The ontology (or research paradigm) of Hinduism can be summarized on 8 principles which answer the 6 W's (who-what-where-why-when-how.) The purpose of darshanas, which expands in this general worldview, is to investigate reality deeper, making them each specific worldviews.

Darshanas (Viewpoints) are research paradigms or metaphysical worldviews that form the basis of the philosophical schools of Arya dharmas. These Astik worldviews and the traditions based on them together constitute the systems of Arya dharmas and their synthesis and practice. Their purposes are to understand the true nature of the world, the Self, and speculate on achieving salvation (Moksha.)

Darshana world-vision, a view or window to the true nature of the world at a very technical level. They have also been referred historically as Mati and Siddhanta. Traditionally darshana is defined as one that envisions the true nature of of the world (samsara), the cause of binding (mula karana or bandhan) and the path to liberation of self (Moksha.) The purpose of darshana is to show the path of binding and the way to the soul's freedom. The knowledge of self (jiva), phenomenal world (jagat) and absolute nature of the world (Parmatma or Brahm) and the consciousness that relates these, is the basis for knowing the nature of binding and liberation.

There are several darshanas that describe the nature of world, self and absolute and their relation in diverse ways. While they all differ in their definitions of these three elements, each darshana defines its own framework within which its definitions are valid. Through Buddhism and Jainism have been regarded by some orthodox thinkers, many others (including Buddhists and Jains themselves) recognized these darshans as Astik.


The 4 pillars of Hinduism. Hinduism can be called Chaturtattva-mati or the ‘’Four-fold creed.’’
The 4 Pillars of Hinduism are from which the Hindu worldview (Darshana) is seen. Together, the 4 Pillars and the 8 Principles form the Hindu Canon (Tattva-samasa.)

The darshanas are an expansion of the general Hindu worldview, which is based on the four pillars of Hinduism. Essentially, they are philosophical explanations of realities. Insight into worldviews has also been called anubhava (“experience”) and sakshatkara (“realization”) When a soul has attained Nirvana (Moksha during lifetime), it has said to have achieved atma-sakshatkara.

A research paradigm in philosophy consists usually of 4 fields; ontology, epistemology, axiology, and methodology. It is used for the study or the world and its knowledge. Hinduism itself is a research paradigm because of the 4 pillars it is based on and what those pillars represent.

The Hindu research paradigm:

Pillar Meaning In terms of a philosophy In terms of doctrine In terms of theory In terms of an experiment
Doctrine of Moksh Salvation Ontology
(nature of reality)
Ideal Theoretical knowledge Goal
Law of Karma What salvation is based on Epistemology
(how to examine reality)
Ideal Theoretical knowledge Confounding factor
Five Precepts How to stay in accord with that law Axiology
(ethics of reality)
Application Theoretical instruction Objective
Three Yogas How to support the Precepts for burning karma Methodology
(how to discover knowledge/Self-knowledge)
Application Theoretical instruction Objective

A Hindu is anyone who believes that by practicing the Five Precepts and Three Yogas, the soul will be in conformity with the Law of Karma to achieve Moksha.

The general overview of Hinduism:

  1. Parmātmā (or Brahm) - What is Reality
  2. Anuātmā - What are you
  3. Samsāra - What parts you two
  4. Karma - What fuels Samsāra
  5. Bandhan (usually seen as Māyā) - Why Karma affects you, because you're constantly interacting with this reality under Bandhan
  6. Five Precepts - How to abide by Karma while suspended in Bandhan
  7. Three Yogas - How to burn Karma and escape Bandhan
  8. Moksha - When you escape Bandhan and attain Reality

Basis For Specific Darshans[edit]

The pramana-lakshana and the modern scientific method

Worldviews are based on analysis through anvikshiki ("examination".) The rishis Manu, Dattātreya, Kapila, and Vyāsa regularly implemented anvikshiki vidyā to analyze concepts. The Nyaya and Vaisheshika darshanas implemented this process more than the others.

The analytical nature of darshanas can be seen merely in their names alone. Of the major or Shad Astik Darshanas, there are 2 Mimamsas (Purva and Uttar) meaning "Investigation", 2 Samkhyas (of Kapila and Patanjali) or "Numerical" ones, and 2 Tarkas (Nyaya and Vaisheshika) or “Rationalist” ones and the Tarka school darshan Nyaya "reasoning".

Pramana-lakshana (Standard of Measure Illustration) was also applied. They are the basis of gyana for the darshanas, and the Mimamsa schools have the most measures.

Uttar and Purva Mimamsa's Pramana-lakshana

  1. Swata (axiom)
  2. Pratyaksha (observation)
  3. Upamana (research)
  4. Arthapatti (hypothesis)
  5. Anumana (conclusion)
  6. Shabda (share results)

Because most darshanas are based on a swata (or anupalabdhi or abhava-pratyaksha) or an idea which is accepted as self-evident (i.e., the soul exists), vyavaharika (experimentation) is not possible. Shankara acknowledges this. If vyavaharika is possible, then the Mimamsa Pramana-lakshana is basically he modern Scientific Model, which is based on all the procedures (normally except for a swata.) Some notable Buddhist scholars have too agreed with the swata, including Dignaga and Dharkakirti.[1]

It has been taken into account that evening in analysis, a substance or idea may be falsely perceived, and this is called khyativada.

Major Darshanas[edit]

Popular classification[edit]

Sayana Madhavacharya (14th cent. CE)

Sayana Madhavacarya, founder of the Dwaita Vedanta school, created a compilation of sixteen darshanas called the Sarva Darshana Sangraha. They are as follows:

  1. Gautama Darshana (Nyaya)
  2. Kanada Darshana (Vaisheshika)
  3. Kapila Darshana (Sankhya)
  4. Patanjala Darshana (Yoga Darshana)
  5. Jaimini Darshana (Purva Mimamsa)
  6. Sankara Darshana (Advaita Vedanta)
  7. Ramanuja Darshana (Visistadvaita)
  8. Purna Prajna Darshana (Dvaita of Madhvacarya)
  9. Panineeya Darshana (Vyakarana)
  10. Nakuleesa Pashupata
  11. Śaiva Darshana
  12. Rasesvara Darshana
  13. Pratyabhijnana Darshana (Kashmir Shaivism)
  14. Bauddh Darshana
  15. Arhat Darshana (Jain)
  16. Carvaka/Nastik Darshana

This classification places both the Jain and Bauddh dharms or darshanas into the Astik category while only Carvaka (materialistic hedonism) is Nastik.

Of these, Pashupata of Nakuleesa, Śaiva, Rasesvara and Pratyabhijnana are Śaiva darshanas. Purna Prajna and Ramanuja darshanas are Vaishnava darshanas. There are other Vaishnava darshanas too, such as the Suddhadvaita of Vallabhacarya (which is also called Pushti marga), Bhedabheda (Gaudiya Vaishnava), Dvaitadvaita of Nimbarkacarya. These philosophies are closely knit with religious practices and theology.

Some of the darshanas like Vaisheshika or Vyakarana for instance, are spiritual philosophies knit with sastras. They contain a worldview, and how the sastra explains the phenomenal world, along with the definition of how jiva is bound in the phenomenal world and what causes liberation. While Vaisheshika enumerates the world in terms of viseshas or attributes, Vyakarana being sabda sastra sees the world as a manifestation of sound-energy and gives ways to refine words to make the sacrifice (yajna) of life fruitful. Vyakarana is the science of purifying word and word brings understanding of the world.

Vedanta darshana is further interpreted according to the lights of seers. And they have become different darshanas over time. The famous ones are Advaita Vedanta, Visistadvaita and Dvaita. There are many other “darshanas”, such as Dvaitadvaita, Bhedabheda, Suddhadvaita, Nakuleesa Pashupata, Pratyabhijna and so on. Advaita Vedanta holds six pramanas and is purely a Vedanta (having spiritual philosophy) darshana. It holds vivarta-vada. Dvaita and Visistadvaita accept three pramanas, pratyaksha, anumana and sabda (Sruti). Visistadvaita holds parinama-vada. Dvaita in particular is called Tattva-vada, which deals with the tattvas of the universe. There are Śaiva schools such as Śaiva, which also hold dvaita or dualism.

Other classifications[edit]

Panini (4th-6th cent. BCE)

Panini, founder of the Vyakarana darshana, in his Kasikavrtti decrees that anyone who doesn’t believe in invisible elements like atma and transmigration is nastik.

Patanjali (2nd cent. BCE)

Patanjali, founder of the Raja Yoga darshana, declares that anyone who believes that “it exists” is an Astik , referring to the supernatural - leaving the definition vague and open for virtually any religion.

Mahamorajataka (3th cent BCE - 5th cent. CE)

The Buddhist scripture Mahamorajataka says the doctrine of the uccheda-vādin (nihilist) is nastika-drishti (Pali: natthika-ditthi or nihilism) or Nastik.

The Pali dictionary defines ‘natthika’ as one who professes the motto of ‘natthi’ (nothingness or nihilism.)

Chandrakirti (7th cent. CE)

Chandrakirti the Buddhist scholar in his Prasannapadā declares “We are not nastiks.

Jayant Bhatt (10th cent. CE)

Jayant Bhatt the Nyaya sage in his Nyāyamañjari says that only Mimamsa, Nyaya, Samkhya, Jain, Bauddh as Astik darshanas.

Haribhadra Suri (10th cent. CE)

Haribhadra Suri the Jain scholar says, that an Astika darshana is one that adheres to the beliefs of the paraloka (supreme world), punya (virtue), pap (sin), and gati (ability to achieve the supreme world.)

Of Nastik darshanas he classed together Vaisheshika and Nyaya with Carvaka.

Jinadatta Suri (13th cent. CE);

Jinadatta Suri the Jain scholar classed into the Astik class Jain, Mimamsa, Bauddh and Sankhya

As Nastik be classed Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Yoga and Vedanta.

Madhusudana Saraswati (16th cent. CE)

Madhusudana Saraswati in Prasthanabheda classed into the Astik class Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Karma Mimamsa, Sariraka Mimamsa, Patanjala, Pancaratra, and Pashupati.

Haribhadra (18th cent. CE)

Haribhadra the Jain scholar says in his Sad-Darshana Sammuchaya that Bauddh, Nyayika, Sankya, Jain, Vaishesika, Jaiminiya are Astik.

Bhimacharya Jhalakikar (19th cent. CE)

Bhimacarya in his Nyāyakoșa classes only 4 darshanas as Astik; Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Karma Mimamsa, and Raja Yoga.

It is specifically stated in versions 1, 2, and 3 that both Samkhya and Vedanta are Nastik because, "In the end also the Vedantin holding the opinion of illussionism (mayavada) turns out to be a Nastika."[2]

Salient Features of Darshanas[edit]

Most darshanas have these elements in common: They hold that Atman/Self is distinct from manas (mind), buddhi (intellect) and prakriti (nature). Atman is eternal and free, and liberation is to realize this clearly and not to mistake it for something else.

The darshanas differ in the technicalities like how binding comes, and the methods and meaning of liberation. They are not unanimous in accepting Veda as the highest authority on Truth. They are not unanimous in accepting the existence and nature of Iswara or a unitary Godhead.

Many of the darshanas have developed along with spiritual philosophy, elaborate methods and practices that help the individual’s liberation. The methods are based on the theory of consciousness (theory of consciousness is discussed in the Consciousness Studies article). Yoga is a good example of this. They all lay emphasis on dharmic life, devotion, turning mind inwards and meditation on the ultimate reality.

Some spiritual philosophies have not developed separately but closely related to theology and religious practices, the way Visistadvaita developed hand in hand with Sri Vaishnava. They are almost inseparable. The same holds with Śaiva darshanas like Pashupata and Śaiva. Worship of deity, theology of the deity, paths to salvation, how God manifests in the phenomenal world, are contained in these in addition to a Vedantic worldview.


Each darshana specifies the pramanas it accepts. Pramana is a source of knowledge, as well as a reference for validation of knowledge. The main pramanas are pratyaksha (perception), anumana (inference), upamana (analogy), ardhapatti (presumption), anupalabdi (non-apprehension) and sabda (scriptural source/authority). All the six pramanas are accepted by both Mimamsa darshanas. Nyaya accepts four of them, Vaisheshika two, Sankhya three, Yoga three.

Prathyaksha and Sabda are the two common pramanas for all the canonical Vedic darshanas with the exception of Vaisheshika. Acceptance of sabda pramana or axiomatic knowledge (Sruti and Smriti to the extent that it conforms with Sruti constitute Sabda pramana) makes a darshana Astika/Vaidika. Nonacceptance of the same makes a darshana Nastik.

Bauddh and Jain accept two pramanas, pratyaksha and anumana. Carvaka accepts pratyaksha alone. They do not accept Veda pramanya and this is the reason that they are not counted as Vedic darshanas.

The acceptance of pramanas can be explicit or implicit. Though Vaisheshika lists only Pratyaksha and Anumana as its pramanas, it is still treated as an Astika darshana because it does not reject Veda pramana, and recognizes Vedic knowledge and methods as the means to knowledge and liberation, and upholds the Vedic Dharma of Varna and Ashrama. Thus its acknowledgment of Veda is implicit and not explicit. This is unlike the Nastik darshanas that explicitly reject Veda pramana as well as Varna-Ashrama dharma. Similarly Sankhya does not list analogy, but applies it as part of logical inference making it an implicit acknowledgment.

The Absolute[edit]

Absolute or Brahm, the immutable eternal existence is the ultimate and independent reality. Everything else, the individual self and the phenomenal world is a reality dependent on and relative to the absolute.

The Universe[edit]

Each darshana explains the origin of the world, its creation and transformation.

There are two kinds of causes, nimitta (acting/nominal) and upadana (substantive). For instance when a pot is made, the potter is nimitta and clay is the upadana karana.

There are three different approaches that these darshanas follow: arambha-vada, parinama-vada and vivarta-vada. Roughly, Arambha-vada holds that the universe is created. Parinama-vada holds that the universe is not created or destroyed but it only transforms. Particularly, it is transformation of the manifesting form of the immutable absolute. There are many theories subscribed to by the different worldviews, but one of the famous analogies given for the creation is the way a spider weaves its abode, how the thread comes from inside it without transforming the spider itself. This is the way the world is formed out of absolute and dissolves in it, without transforming it.

Vivarta-vada holds that the Universe as it appears is but because of the limitation of observer and it appears so, because of Maya, the indescribable principle of manifestation from the unmanifest. What the world actually is, is Brahm and once that is realized the illusion is no more there (meaning it puts an end to the sense-perception of universe and not an end to the universe as such).

The Individual Self[edit]

The darshanas describe self as sentient. However they differ in the attributes of self in the bound and liberated states. The vivarta school maintains that self has no attributes and is eternally free, while binding and liberation are for the being with upadhis or witnessing faculties of consciousness. Also, the individual self is undifferentiated from the absolute. The parinama schools on the other hand maintain that self has attributes in the bound state and rids of those in the liberated state. Some of them hold that the self is unitary and some of them hold the multiplicity of self. Some of the parinama schools hold that the self in the liberated state is undifferentiated from absolute/Brahm, and some hold that the liberated beings are multiple and different from the absolute.

Binding and Liberation[edit]

Each darshana defines the bound and liberated states of self, and the nature of self in those states. They explain the cause for the experiences of beings in the phenomenal world, how they bring about binding and what is the path to liberation.

The Six Original Darshanas[edit]

The ideals and applications of Hinduism. The ideals are known as Darshanas while the application are known as the Yogatraya.

There are six darshanas that treat Veda as authority (together called shad-darshanas or the "six darshanas"). They are Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Sankhya, Yoga, Purva Mimamsa and Uttara Mimamsa. Uttara Mimamsa is also called Vedanta darshana.

The six darshanas can be grouped into three pairs – Nyaya-Vaisheshika, Sankhya-Yoga, Purvottara Mimamsa. Nyaya and Vaisheshika are called arambha-vada. Sankhya and Yoga are called parinama-vada. Purva and Uttara Mimamsa discuss philosophy of Veda. Purva Mimamsa discusses the philosophy of karma kanda and Uttara Mimamsa discusses the spiritual philosophy (esp. Upanishads). Nyaya, Yoga and Uttara Mimamsa say that there is an Iswara the Lord of All souls. The other three are Nireeswara-vadas. They talk of Atman, but not of Paramatman. Nireeswara-vada is not necessarily nastik-vada and these darshanas do lay an equal amount of stress on Dharma and that is the reason they are called Astika darshanas and not because they accept a Parabrahman different from individual atman. They differ in their basic tenets like Iswara.

All these darshanas hold that atman is distinct from manas (mind), buddhi (intellect) and prakriti (nature) and that binding is because of the contact of these with the Purusha. Once the contact is rid, that is liberation. They differ in which of these causes binding, what causes creation and whether creation is an appearance or true in a given state. They also differ in whether atman is identical with Brahman or not. Differentiating these and understanding the uniformity of these is very important both in understanding Hinduism as well as differentiating Hindu from non-Hindu ideology.


See also: Physics and chemistry, Introduction to Kannada Krithis
Text Vaisheshika Darshana
Author Kanāda Kāshyap
Bhashya kaara Prasasta Pāda
Vartika kaara Jagadidh Bhattāchārya
Pseudonym Aulukya Darshana

It has 10 chapters, 20 ahnikas, 370 sutras. It accepts 2 pramanas (criteria for verifiability) and 7 padarthas. Vaisheshika is one of the earliest darshanas hypothesised. According to it, atma-manas contact causes the nine Gunas – buddhi, sukha, dukha, iccha, dvesha, prayatna, dharma, adharma, sanskara. This is the samsara for atman. Realising this and separating mind from atman so that the Gunas get dissolved and do not arise again, is Moksha. This is possible through satkarma, sravana, manana and so on. According to Vaisheshika darshana, Guna-nasha forever is moksha.

A major division between Nyaya and Vaisheshika is that while Nyaya places much emphasis on the self as knower, Vaisheshika emphasizes the kinds of attributes that exist as objects of knowledge.[3]


Text Nyaya Darshana
Author Gotama
Bhashya kaara Vatsayana
Vartika kaara Udyota kaara
Pseudonyms Ānvikșiki Vidyā,

It has 5 chapters, 10 ahnikas and 528 sutras. It accepts 4 pramanas and 16 padarthas.

Nyaya is divided into 16 categories; 1. Pramana (Means of valid knowledge), 2. Prameya (object of valid knowledge), 3. Samshaya (doubt), 4. Prayojna (purpose), 5. Drishtana (example), 6. Siddhanta (established principle), 3. Avayava (parts of a logical argument), 8. Tarka (polemics), 9. Nirnaya (art of drawing conclusions), 10. Vada (discussion), 11. Jalpa (argument), 12. Vitanda (cavil), 14. Cchhala (equivocation), 15. Jati (futile argument), 16. Nirgrahasthana (disagreement on first principles.)[4]

According to Nyaya, midhya jnana (nescience) causes sansara and tattva jnana (gnosis) brings liberation. Destroying misery (dukha) forever is Moksha. Jiva is different from Iswara. Iswara is a nominal (nimitta karana) cause for creation, the substantial cause of creation is paramaanus (upadana karana). Jivas are multiple because of multiple bodies (sareera). But Iswara is one. Iswara created the Veda.

It is called Nyaya because it is constituted of five “laws” – Pratijna, Hetu, Udaharana, Upanaya, Nigamana. Nyaya includes formal logic and modes of scientific debate. It explains the logical constructs like antecedent and laws of implying. It expounds various modes of scientific debate and methods for debate, like tarka, vitanda, chala, jalpa and so on.

Perception is the most important epistemology. It is defined as non-erroneous cognition produced by the interaction of sense organs with the object and it isn't associated with a name.[5]


Text Sankhya Darshana, Sankhya Karikas
Author Sankhya Darshana: Kapila, Asuri, Panca Sikhacarya
Sankhya Karikas: Iswara Krishna
Bhashya Gaudapada
Vartika Vijnana Bhikshu
Pseudonyms Kāpilya,
Sāmkhya Tantra

It accepts 3 pramanas and 25 tattvas (principles).

The Narayana avatara Kapila gave 25 sutras and Vaiswanara avatara Kapila gave 6 chapters. Disciple line of the latter Kapila – Asuri, Panca Sikhacarya, Iswara Krishna. Iswara Krishna wrote the Sankhya Karikas with 70 aryavrittas.

Sankhya too, is an old school. It says that binding is because of mistaking Prakriti for Purusha. Realizing their difference is liberation. As such, binding and liberation are for the Prakriti and not Purusha. They appear on the Purusha because of contact with Prakriti. Nyaya recognizes Iswara. The world is true. Purusha is asanga and chidrupa, not touched by creation or action. He is Jnana rupa, but not Jnanasraya. That is, Purusha is himself knowledge and not seen as a result of knowledge. In liberated state Purusha is neither jada nor ananda rupa. Multiple Purushas exist. There is no single Iswara, and Prakriti Herself does creation. Sukha, dukha and moha are caused by the three gunas (sattva, rajas, tamas).

The Mahābhārata declares Sāṃkhya as a doctrine of Moksha ("Sāṃkhya vai Moksadarśanam.")


Text Yoga Sutras
Author Patanjali
Bhashya Bādarāyaṇa Vyāsa
Vartika Vijnana Bhikshu
Pseudonyms Rāja Yoga,
Astānga Yoga,
Seswara Sāmkhya

It has 4 padas and 194 sutras. It accepts 3 pramanas and 25 tattvas.

According to Yoga, mistaking buddhi for Purusha causes binding. Realizing their difference is liberation. Purusha is asanga and chidrupa. Buddhi sattva has three qualities (sattva-rajas-tamo gunas) and it attracts Purusha. Atman separated from buddhi and its qualities is Moksha. Yoga of eight limbs (yama, niyama, asana, pratyahara, pranayama, dharana, dhyana, Samadhi) gets one to Samadhi state. By the grace of Iswara too one gets to Samadhi state. One can realize the buddhi–atman difference in that state. Avidya is binding and jnana is Kaivalya (liberation). Binding and liberation are for buddhi and not for atman, they only appear to be above the atman. Iswara is one.

This Astanga (eightfold) yoga in its fourfold stage is of the padas of Samadhi, Sadhana, Vibhuti, and Kaivalya.[6]

Purva Mimamsa[edit]

Text M̶i̶m̶ā̶m̶s̶ā̶ ̶S̶u̶t̶r̶a̶
Author Jaimini
Bhashya Sabara Swamy
Vartika Kumarila Bhatt
Pseudonyms Vākyaśāstra,
Karma Mimāmsā,
Dharma Mimāmsā,

Three purposes served by Mimamsa:

  1. Evolving the rules of interpretations for the interpretation of Vedic passages, which is why the darshana is called Vakyasastra
  2. Giving authoritative rulings on sacrificial matters and fixing the correct procedure & the nature of sacrifices, which is why it is called Karma Mimamsa
  3. It is also a worldview (darshana) and so has to present an epistemology and ontology

There are 2 divisions of the Mimamsa Sutra:

  1. Jaimini Sutra (chapters 1-12) - attributed to Jaimini
  2. Sankarşa-kāņda or Devatā-kāņda (chapters 13-16) - also attributed to Jaimini

Mimamsa is the most controversial of the darshanas because many of its proponents have supported animal sacrifices, which violate the Five Precepts' Vow of Ahimsa and only increase suffering of creatures. Numerous scholars have documented that there are various 'Jaiminis', likely meaning persons of the same Jaimini gotra. It then makes sense that the original Jaimini who founded this darshana would not have been a supporter of animal sacrifices, and the Mimamsa Sutra, like numerous other texts, was repeatedly amended to fit the point-of-views of the particular authors.

There have been several Jaiminis, as Jaimini itself is a gotra. Scholars have raised contested the claim that the Mimamsa Sutra was written by a single person. It was believed that if Jaimini wrote the Sankarşa-kāņda - it would not have been left uncommented upon by Shabara. Vedānta Deśika concludes that the Sankarşa-kāņda portion of the Mimamsa Sutra may have been written by Kāśakrstna and that the author might , out of courtesy to Jaimini have attributed them to a certain 'Jaimini'. An example of this kind of authorship outside of this darshana is that the Setubandba is attributed to Kalidāsa , but written by Pravarasena.

Various texts are attributed to Jaimini, including a Samhita , a Brahmana , the Kalpasātra , etc. Whether these were written by Jaimini himself or by his pupils has been pondered by scholars.

Nilakanta Shastri concludes that there were three Jaiminis as authors for the Mimamsa Sutra and two Bādarāyaṇas for the Uttar Mimamsa darshana. It should be noted that there were also 2 Mimamsaka authors named Mātņdatta. Dr. T.R. Chantamani agrees with Nilakanta Shastri that the 'Jaimini' of the Purva Mimamsa Sutra VI.31 and VI.34. Pashupatinath Shastri also wrote his finding that there were different Bādarāyaṇas.[7]

What is further notable is that Narayanarya condensed Jaimini's work to half, thereby the Mimamsa Sutra underwent another amendment.

It has 16 chapters in the adhikarana way. It accepts 6 pramanas. Purva Mimamsa is also called Karma-Mimamsa.

Dharma develops by performing Vedic rituals. By refraining from prohibited deeds and actions inspired by desires, one can be cleansed from sins. It leads to a state beyond dharma and adharma. After experiencing the result of past karma, body (sareera) dies. If the state beyond dharma and adharma is attained by then, the atman does not assume sareera any more. Thus liberation from sareera forever is Moksha. Moksha is a result of nivritti dharma. One can get to swarga (heaven) by pravritti. Atman is distinct from sareera and indriyas (sense organs). There is no Iswara separate from atman. Atman is jnanasraya but not jnanarupa. That is, atman can be known through jnana but is not jnana itself. Veda is accepted as pramana in Purva Mimamsa. Atma-manas contact causes the nine Gunas (spoken of by Vaisheshika.) In the liberated state when atman liberates from contact with manas, gunas get dissolved. Atman is jada rupa in that state.

Uttara Mimamsa[edit]

Text Brahma Sutras
Author Bādarāyaṇa Vyāsa
Bhashya Ādi Sankara
Vartika Narāyana Saraswati
Pseudonyms Brahma Mimamsa,

It has 4 chapters, 16 padas and 555 sutras. It accepts 6 pramanas (pratyaksha, anumana, upamana, agama, ardhapatti, anupalabdi) and 25 tattvas.

According to Uttara Mimamsa, binding is lack of discrimination between atman and non-atman. From knowledge of atman and its true nature, ignorance is dissolved. Experiencing it as nirguna (without qualities), advaya (one without second), and Brahman is Moksha. Jiva-Iswara difference is because of nescience. Once that goes, the natural unity of Jiva-Para realizes. Until the unity is realized, Jagat (world/universe) is true. Jagat appears over Brahman. Once that is realized, the world is an illusion (mithya) and only Brahman remains. Brahman is the undifferentiated (abhinna), nominal (nimitta) and substantial (upadana) cause for creation. Thus, Uttara Mimamsa holds the indefinable nature of Brahman. Purushas are not multiple. There is one Iswara and Prakriti does not create by Herself – She does it for and inspired by Iswara.

Overview of Astik Darshanas[edit]

School Uttar Mimāmsā Purva Mimāmsā Kapila Sānkhya Pātanjal Sānkhya Nyāya Tarka Vaisheshika Tarka Achintya Bheda Abheda Akshar Purushottam Pratyabhijnana Raseshvara Siddhanta Pashupata Vyakarana Bauddh Jain
Sectarian affiliation None None None None None None Vaishnava Vaishnava Śaiva Śaiva Śaiva Śaiva None None None
Classification Pantheist Exegentist, philologist, ritualist Rationalist Rationalist, deductive, inductive Empiricist, naturalist Rationalist Rationalist
Metaphysics Monist Monist Dualist Dualist Pluralist Pluralist Monist Pluralist
Creationism Yes No No No No No No No
Supreme's Title(s) Brahm,
Mayopadhika Brahm (Advaita),
Avyakta (Advaita),
Parameshvara (Dwaita)
Karma Purusha Purusha Vishesha Kartā Kartā Brahm Parmātmā
Supreme’s Guna Nirguna (Advaita),
Shaguna (Dwaita)
Nirguna Nirguna Shaguna Nirguna Nirguna Nirguna Nirguna
Separate identity between Supreme and self Yes, bheda No, abheda No, abheda No, abheda No, abheda Yes,[8], bheda
Consciousness of self Conscious Conscious Unconscious
Moksha synonyms Aparoksanubhuti,
Svargādiprāpti Duhkhanivrtti,
Attributes of individual at Moksha Pralaya Yes, they remain wholly disassociated Yes, they remain wholly disassociated Pralaya Pralaya
Self's extent of consciousness Vibhu Vibhu Vibhu Vibhu Vibhu Vibhu Vibhu
Cause-and-effect Vivarta-vāda Vivarta-vāda Parināma-vāda Parināma-vāda Ārambha-vāda Ārambha-vāda,
Relationship between object and property Tadātmya Tadātmya Swarupa Swarupa Samavaya Samavaya Tadātmya Tadātmya
Ayuta-siddha objects 0 0 5 5 0 0
Amount of karmas 3 3 3 3 Infinite 5 3 8
Padārthas 7,

2 (Advaita, Dvaita),
4 (Dvaita),
10 (Madhavasiddhantasara)

5 2 16 7 4 2
Dravyas 20 (Dwaita) 9 9
Basis of gyāna Inference, perception, comparison, testimony, presumption, self-validity of knowledge Inference, perception, testimony Inference, perception, comparison, testimony Inference, perception Inference, perception
Emphasis of Vedic exegesis Yes Yes No No No No No No
Composition of Vedas Apaurusheya[9] Apaurusheya[10] Apaurusheya[11] Apaurusheya[12] Paurusheya or Ishvarakaranatva[13] Paurusheya or Ishvarakaranatva[14] Paurusheya and altered Paurusheya and altered
Duration of Vedas Infinite[15] Infinite[16] Infinite[17] Infinite[18] Finite[19] Finite[20] Finite Finite


  1. P. 55 Buddhist Epistemology By Siddheshwar Rameshwar Bhatt and Anu Mehrotra
  2. P. 489 A survey of Hinduism By Klaus K. Klostermaier
  3. Asian Philosophies By John M. Koller
  4. P. 41 The Big Fish Consciousness as Structure, Body and Space By Anna J. Bonshek, Corrina Bonshek, and Lee C. Fergusson
  5. P. 394 History of Ancient India Revisited, A Vedic-Puranic View. By Omesh K. Chopra
  6. Keywords for India: A Conceptual Lexicon for the 21st Century edited by Rukmini Bhaya Nair, Peter Ronald deSouza
  7. P. 29 Introduction to the Purva Mimamsa By Pashupatinath Shastri
  8. P. 189 The Concept of Divinity in Jainism By Pukhraj Ajay Kothari, Surendra Bothara
  9. P. 113 Veda and Torah Transcending the Textuality of Scripture By Barbara A. Holdrege
  10. P. 113 Veda and Torah Transcending the Textuality of Scripture By Barbara A. Holdrege
  11. P. 113 Veda and Torah Transcending the Textuality of Scripture By Barbara A. Holdrege
  12. P. 113 Veda and Torah Transcending the Textuality of Scripture By Barbara A. Holdrege
  13. P. 113 Veda and Torah Transcending the Textuality of Scripture By Barbara A. Holdrege
  14. P. 113 Veda and Torah Transcending the Textuality of Scripture By Barbara A. Holdrege
  15. P. 113 Veda and Torah Transcending the Textuality of Scripture By Barbara A. Holdrege
  16. P. 113 Veda and Torah Transcending the Textuality of Scripture By Barbara A. Holdrege
  17. P. 113 Veda and Torah Transcending the Textuality of Scripture By Barbara A. Holdrege
  18. P. 113 Veda and Torah Transcending the Textuality of Scripture By Barbara A. Holdrege
  19. P. 113 Veda and Torah Transcending the Textuality of Scripture By Barbara A. Holdrege
  20. P. 113 Veda and Torah Transcending the Textuality of Scripture By Barbara A. Holdrege